Biographie Histoire de Voyager

Iles des Saintes


The islands are an archipelago of Les Saintes volcanic islands of the French Antilles in the Caribbean Sea. These tropical islands lie south of Guadeloupe, west of Marie-Galante and north of Dominica, in the heart of the inner arc of the Lesser Antilles. Among these nine islands, only two, Terre-de-Haut and Terre-de-Bas, are populated mainly descendants of settlers from western France. Their two 8621 people take to the gentile "Saintois." This small island was discovered by Christopher Columbus November 4, 1493, which named "Los Santos". It was not until October 18, 1648, that the "Gibraltar of the Caribbean" became a French possession, and will be therefore many battles settlement between the two major naval powers of the time such as France and England. The most famous took place April 12, 1782, towards the end of the War of Independence of the United States and into history as the "Battle of the Saintes" 2. The remains of the military past are still visible and are part of the cultural heritage of the islands. Today, the holy form an administrative dependency overseas department of Guadeloupe and is permanently incorporated into the French Republic, as common. They actively participate in the policy of this department and vote in all national elections. By its location in the Îles wind, this area has a tropical climate tempered by trade winds and experiencing typical biota of the region, some species endemic to these islands are protected. Population whose economy is heavily oriented towards the sea has developed a rich culture with its European origins and Creole that easily integrates into the Franco-Caribbean identity. Long isolées3 the Iles des Saintes were open to the world and have become a major tourist destination in the Caribbean.
The Saints are a string of volcanic islands completely surrounded by shallow reefs. The archipelago is derived from the latest Pliocene volcanic belt that forms the inner arc of the Lesser Antilles. It is composed of rocks appeared in the Tertiary era (between 4.7 and 2 million years) 5. A unique island was originally divided by earthquakes and volcanic tectonic origin to create a particular archipelago due to the subduction of the North American South American plates, and the Caribbean.
The Holy consist of two very mountainous inhabited islands, Terre-de-Haut and Terre-de-Bas, which are added seven uninhabited islets:
Islet in Cabrit;
the Grand Islet;
la Coche;
the Augustinians;
the Redonde;
Rocks breakthroughs
The total area is 13 km2. The archipelago has about 22 km of coastline and its highest point is the hill of Camel, on the island of Newfoundland High mètres6 reaching 309.
The islands are located in Saintes northern hemisphere. They belong to the group of islands in the Caribbean Basin, southeast of the North American continent, between the Tropic of Cancer and the Equator. It is located at 15 ° 51 North, the same latitude as Thailand leHonduras and 61 ° 36 West, the same longitude as the Labrador and the Falkland Islands.
This location places the archipelago in the heart of the Lesser Antilles, 6,800 kilometers (4,200 mi) of metropolitan France; 2 200 km (1,400 mi) southeast of Florida, and 600 km ( 370 mi) off the coast of South America. Les Saintes is located immediately north of the island of Dominica, to the south of the island of Guadeloupe and Marie-Galante is. They are separated from Guadeloupe by the "channel of the Holy" and the North of Dominica by the "Canal of Dominica," two of the many straits that account Antilles archipelago.
 Africa, 4650 km
 Central America, 2250 km
 France, 6800 km
 Venezuela, 818 km
 New York, 2990 km
 Rio de Janeiro, 4600 km
 Barbados, 330 km
 Puerto Rico, 560 km
 Guadeloupe, 14 km
 Dominica, 22 km
The climate of these islands is tropical, tempered by trade winds. Despite its location between Guadeloupe and Dominica, the climate of the Saintes archipelago is different from its neighbors and is warmer and drier. He tends to approach the climate of most small islands to low peaks of the Lesser Antilles. (Saint-Barthélemy, Désirade, St. Martin ...) Terre-de-Bas, western island of the archipelago, is watered as Terre-de-Haut, the easternmost island which is still very broken. The archipelago has over 300 days of sunshine per year, the annual rainfall can reach 900 mm but varies greatly. The rainy season or winter lasts from May to November, which is also the hot season. The dry season from December to April is called Lent. Moisture, however, is not very high because of the winds. The average temperature is 25 ° C (77 ° F) with daytime temperatures amount to 34 ° C (93 ° F). The average temperature in January is 28 ° C (82 ° F) while in July it is 31 ° C (88 ° F). The lowest night temperature may be 16 ° C (61 ° F). The waters of the Caribbean Sea generally maintain a temperature of about 27 ° C (81 ° F). The archipelago is frequently under threat of cyclonic storms as all the Caribbean islands.
The archipelago is at the administrative level, township divided into two municipalities: Terre-de-Haut and Terre-de-Bas.
It is attached to the District of Basse-Terre and is included in the Fourth District of the Guadeloupe
It therefore has the French departmental status and is part of the so-called assimilation to French territory in the application of Article 73 of the Political Constitution.
Guadeloupean Administratively, the Holy are also included in the outermost regions of the European Union.
Two halls are installed either side of the inhabited islands, and two offices PTT (Post Bank).
The Saints have six primary and secondary schools which enroll students from both towns:
2 kindergartens
2 primary schools
2 colleges
High school and higher education require an exodus of children to Guadeloupe, Martinique or the metropolis.
The steep terrain and little benefit rainfall did not allow the establishment of agricultural crops, few slaves were brought to the islands. The settlement is historically constituted Bretons, Normans and Poitevins who settled for fishing. This feature explains the specific type of Saintois and Saintoises generally mixed race with light eyes.
In 2008 the population of the Holy stood thus:
Terre-de-Haut: 1831 inhabitants with an average change between 1999 and 2006 of 0.9% and a population density of 305.2 inhabitant/km2. The number of households is it 6931.
Terre-de-Bas: 1031 inhabitants with an average change between 1999 and 2006 of 2.9% and a population density of 151.6 people per km2. The number of households is 3777.
Life expectancy for men is 75 years and for women 82 years. The average number of children per woman is 2.328
The Saintes archipelago is populated mostly by descendants of the Norman settlers, Brittany, Poitou, Saintonge and Angevin most families occupied the former French colony of Saint-Christophe. Its population has the distinction of being a large majority of European origin and therefore speak a variety of popular French in the Americas, with the particularity of containing words of former French.
The French in France is the official language and the language taught in schools. Among the native languages ​​of the native population, the saintois or Creole patois, as described the local population from the mixing of European and Creole influence people slaves brought in the archipelago, is by far the most pratiquée3.
The saintois Creole is a French-based creole, and enter the category of agglutinative languages. It differs from those of the neighboring islands (Guadeloupe, Marie-Galante and Dominica) by its very Anglicized pronunciation. It tends to be closer to the Creole spoken in the areas of wind on the island of Saint-Barthélemy. Some phonemes, [œ], [œ ~], [ø], [y] of the French language, having disappeared from modern Creole Guadeloupe, Dominica and Martinique find their places in this dialect. It is an oral language, transcription missing other Creole sound is transcribed in International Phonetic Alphabet, a study prepared by the GEREC Group of Studies and Research in Creole-speaking and Francophone area.
Unlike other Caribbean Creoles who are moving away, it tends to bring highly of the French language, including overcorrection, the pronunciation of [r], see misused, as a sign of good talk. Probably a legacy of the convenience of the days of the early settlers considered by the phenomenon of diglossia, the dialect as a secondary language in the lower French and tried to avoid pronouncing the [r] in the way [w] Guadeloupe nèg9 they called to speak. For the word (thirst), for example, use the French pronunciation of origin, Guadeloupe is SWEF say some individuals may, however, use this version influence of Guadeloupean Creole.
Some vocabulary words are typical of talk saintois as certain expressions and insults.
The syntax is slightly different as well.
There is a second variant of this dialect, represented by the isolated group on two different soils due to the geographical configuration of the archipelago evolution. We distinguish then the talk of Terre-de-Haut speak of Terre-de-Bas.
The variant spoken in Terre-de-Bas is the same, only the emphasis changes, and some expressions that are typical. This variant incurs certain formulation. ex: Ola i yé (, where is he) becomes o'l'i '.
Although French is the correct parental educational priority, there is no discomfort generational speak Creole. Although in respect of deference, convenience means that we should avoid speaking in Creole for those exercising public authority, the much older than themselves and unknown people, although over time this behavior is greatly reduced in favor of liberalization of language.
Many other features of this dialect is still countable. Speaking saintois is still very much alive and Saintois boast of its difference with other Creoles, and are proud of the practice. They convey so vernacular to their children as a indélébile3 heritage.
Pre-Columbian era
The Saints, by their location in the heart of the arc of the Lesser Antilles, have first been attended by Indian tribes from the Caribbean Basin and Central America. Caaroucaëra (Arawak name of Holy Island), although qu'inhabitée, in the absence of water source, was the subject of regular visits and Caribbean Arawak peoples living on Guadeloupe and adjacent to the ninth century Dominica. They came to include hunting and fishing. The archaeological remains of war axes and pottery unearthed on the site of Anse Rodrigue and stored at Fort Museum Napoleon reflect the passage of these populations.
Discovery and colonization [edit]
It was during his second voyage to the Americas, Christopher Columbus discovered the small archipelago, November 4, 1493, he called "Los Santos", in reference to the feast of All Saints, which had been celebrated. Like its neighboring islands without these precious metals are quickly abandoned by the Spaniards who favor the Greater Antilles and South America, to 1523.
October 18, 1648, a French expedition led by Sir Mé the Annex the Holy already under British influence, at the request of the governor of Guadeloupe Charles Houël. From 1649, the islands became an exploited by the West India Company French colony that tries to establish agriculture, inhospitable soil and arid climate of Terre-de-Haut prevents the continuation of the activity, however, remains some time in Terre-de-Bas, more humid and fertile, under the command of Sieur du Buisson Hazier from 1652.
In 1653, Count of Star pushes the Carib Indians, who are trying to invest in retaliation for the Holy French attacks against the tribes of Dominica, as decided by the lord of Medi in response to the massacre of French troops from Marie-Galante . The Caribbean will be permanently removed in 1658. On behalf of the King of France, the Holy redeemed kingdom by Colbert decides to dissolve the French West India Company in 1664.
On August 4, 1666, while the English attack the archipelago, their fleet was routed by a cyclone and some British besieging the "Gibraltar of the West Indies" are quickly expelled by several men and Du Lion Desmeuriers, with the assistance of the Caribbean. The English go August 15, 1666, the day of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary, and a Te Deum is sung at the request of Du Lion which establishes the annual commemoration of the victory. Thus is established the Feast of the island of Terre-de-Haut, which is celebrated with fervor to this day. Our Lady of the Assumption is the patron saint of the parish.
To protect the French colonies in the area, the British are pushed to Barbados by the Governor of Santo Domingo, Jean-Baptiste Ducasse in 1691.
From 1759 to 1763, the English took possession of the Holy, and part of Guadeloupe.
Les Saintes are returned to the kingdom of France after the Treaty of Paris on February 10, 1763, by which France ceded Île Royale (Cape Breton), Ile Saint-Jean, Acadia and Canada, the Great Lakes and the left bank of the Mississippi to the British.
To prevent the British ambitions, King Louis XVI ordered the construction of fortifications, the Holy definitively taking their naval military vocation. That's when construction began on Fort Louis Hill dreary Mire, Fort de la Reine on the "small Martinique" lookouts that are dull model Camel ride (the highest point of the archipelago 309 m) of the Batteries Morel dull and dreary Anchorage in 177710.
Battle of the Saintes April 12, 1782
April 12, 1782, after the January campaign in Basseterre on the island of St. Kitts from a famous French defeat in history as the Battle of the Saintes. The French fleet of Count de Grasse, mandated to annex the English Jamaica, left Martinique and sailed to the islands of Les Saintes it will reach in the evening. Caught in the channel by the English and less in number, it will be overwritten by the vessels of the vice-admirals of England, George Rodney aboard the Formidable and Samuel Hood aboard Barfleur. Legend has it that after having taken the last ball of the carronades, Count de Grasse did take his silver. In little more than five hours, the confrontation is French side 2000 dead, 5000 prisoners and captured five boats whose impetuous renamed City of Paris on which was the Count de Grasse and César which allows blowing the rest of the fleet to escape. This defeat will anchor the Saints under British rule almost permanently for twenty years, but will be fatal to the Royal Navy after the Battle of the Chesapeake (Virginia) in 1781, which will strengthen the colonial troops against American independence. So the battle of the Saintes ends the War of Independence of the United States of America.
In 1794, the France of the Convention, represented by Victor Hugues, who introduced the achievements of the Revolution of 1789 and the first abolition of slavery in Guadeloupe attempts to regain the British Saints, but fails to occupy provisionally , pushed by the powerful British ship Queen Charlotte (which is the origin of the name Queen Charlotte that takes bust French Marianne at Saintes, closely resembling the statue bow of the ship).
In 1802, the Bonapartist managed to get the British abandonment of the archipelago, under pressure from military attacks. April 14, 1809, the English army of Admiral Sir Alexander Forrester Inglis Cochrane from the bay of the Holy and blocks South Pass and Sugarloaf, and regains the archipelago. Three young Saintois John Calo, Cointre and Solitaire able to guide three French vessels, the Hautpoul's the Brave, and Bliss commanded by Admiral Aimable Gilles Troude caught in the bay and are fleeing the passes north of the Whale. These heroes will be decorated with the Legion of Honor, long after their death.
The island of Guadeloupe is also conquered February 26, 1810 by the English. (Invasion of Guadeloupe (1810)). The French Governor Jean Augustine Ernouf was forced to capitulate.
By bilateral treaty signed in Stockholm March 3, 1813, Sweden promises to English common front against Napoleonic France. In return, the British should support the ambitions of the Stockholm Norway. Charles XIV John of Sweden has indeed understood it was time for Sweden to abandon Finland (lost in 1809) and expand the kingdom to the west. To seal this new alliance, England offers the colony of Guadeloupe and its dependencies Charles XIV John of Sweden personally.
By ratification of the Treaty of Paris, 30 May 1814, the UK agrees to return the Guadeloupe to France. King Charles XIV John of Sweden surrenders Guadeloupe to France and wins in return recognition of the Union of Sweden and Norway and the payment to the Swedish royal house of 24 million francs in compensation, known as the Bottom of Guadeloupe (the last milking was honored in 1983).
However, the French returned to the Holy only on 5 December 1814, when the British General Sir James Leith, Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces in the West Indies and Governor of the Leeward Islands agreed to leave the archipelago.
The new governor of Guadeloupe and dependencies, Rear-Admiral Charles Alexandre Léon Durand, Comte de Linois and under the Governor Sir Edward Eugene Boyer, Baron Peyreleau11 sent by Louis XVIII to repossess the colony quickly disturbed by the return of Napoleon I in April 1815 (the Hundred Days). A conflict arises between Bonapartist and therefore monarchists in the colony.
On 19 June 1815, the Sieur Count Linois (monarchist) is sequestered in his palace in Basse-Terre (Guadeloupe) and constrained by Boyer Peyreleau (Bonapartist), joining the orders of the Emperor. He is hunting a British frigate commissioned to restore the monarchical order of Louis XVIII, the Sieur Pierre René Marie, Comte de Vaugiraud, Governor of Martinique and the Windward Islands.
Therefore the Count of Vaugiraud the deposed from office and the English go on the attack.
Les Saintes are annexed again by the crown of England July 6, 1815, Marie-Galante July 18 and August 10, Guadeloupe.
Despite the defeat of the Bonapartist and restoration of Louis XVIII, at the request of the planters of Guadeloupe and by order of General James Leith, the English remained to serve the colony of Bonapartism. The Bonapartist were tried before a court martial and déportés12.
British troops left the colony in French final on July 22, 1816. Sieur Antoine Philippe, Count of Lardenoy is appointed by King Louis XVIII, Governor and Director of Guadeloupe and dependencies 25 July 18163.
In 1822 was born the story of Knight Fréminville13. Indeed, Christopher Paulin Poix, marine naturalist in the country to the Holy aboard the vessel Nereid will share a dramatic love with Saintoise Carolina, better known under the title of Princess Caroline in reference to its legendary beauty. The latter committed suicide from the top of the battery dreary Morel that now bears his name, thinking her beloved died in Saint-Christophe not seeing back country. It therefore ordered the knight to madness; taken grief, it returns to Brest, carrying clothes Carolina, where he dresses up until the end of his days. Prints and stories are preserved in the museum of Fort Napoléon14.
In 1844, during the reign of Louis-Philippe, began the construction of a fort on the ruins of the old Fort Louis, it was decided a fortification technique Vauban to protect the archipelago of any English reconquest.
In 1851, a prison was built on the "Petite Martinique" become "islet in Cabrit", replaced in 1856 a women's prison was destroyed in 1865 after a hurricane. The fort began in the reign of Louis-Philippe, was completed in 1867 in the reign of Napoleon III who baptized Fort Napoleon in honor of his uncle Napoleon I. Fort Queen is in the wake renamed "Fort Josephine." A Lazaretto quarantine was born in 1871 instead of the penitentiary.
August 9, 1882, under the mandate of Jules Grevy, at the request of councilors, with the support of the church claiming the creation of the parish of Saint Nicolas of Myra, the city of Terre-de-Bas was born , ending the town of Saintes. The festival is now established on December 6, the day of Saint Nicolas, in honor of the patron saint of île15.
In 1903, military and disciplinary garrisons are permanently discontinued, this is the end of the "Gibraltar of the West Indies", but in honor of his military past, ships of the Navy are traditionally will stop. In 1906, the famous cruiser Duguay-Trouin stopped to Saintes16. In September 1928, the Saints, like the neighboring islands of Guadeloupe, violently hit by a cyclone intensity that destroyed a large part of the municipal archives. In 1934, the first inns emerge and mark the beginning of the visitors to the island by the world extérieur17, 18.4.
Dissent and departmentalization
In June 1940, responding to the call of General de Gaulle, the French West Indies came in a resistance movement against the Vichy government and Nazi Collaboration they called Dissent. The governor appointed by Marshal Petain, Constant Sorin, is responsible for administering the Guadeloupe and its dependencies. The Holy become a hotbed of dissent.
The French Antilles undergo arbitrary power and authoritarian ideology Philippe Petain and Pierre Laval. The Ministry of Colonies of Vichy, with its colonial representatives Constant Sorin and Admiral Georges Robert, High Commissioner of France, fully apply its legislation including anti-Semitic laws. A strong police state is established and resistance is severely repressed. Given the alignment of the Vichy French Antilles, the Anglo-American forces decreed an embargo on the islands. They are cut off from any relationship with France (especially the import of fuel and food). Constant Sorin therefore applies a policy of rationing and self-sufficiency, by diversifying and increasing local production. This is the time of resourcefulness.
October 27, 1940, the General Council was dissolved and the mayors of Guadeloupe and dependencies are removed from office and replaced by notables appointed by the Vichy government. The mayor of Terre-de-Haut, Theodore Samson, is removed and replaced by a white Martinique, Mr. De Meynard. Popular assembly and freedom of expression are banned by the regime. Passive resistance to Vichy and its local representatives is then organized from 1940 to 1943.
More than 4,000 Caribbean leave their islands, risking their lives to get to the neighboring British colonies. So they join the Free French Forces, by first military training in the United States, Canada and Great Britain.
In this context, the massive Saintois embark aboard their traditional saintoises to join clandestinely Guadeloupe coast and recover voluntary departure. They cross, then the channels of Saintes and Dominica, reaching the British neighboring island and be collected by Allied soldiers, taking care to avoid the patrol Admiral Robert. Many have joined the Caribbean Free French Forces Battalion Fronts on North Africa and participated in the landings in Provence and Italy alongside Alliés19.
At the same time, the Fort Napoleon became a political prison where imprisoned dissidents. Captain Sabine took command.
In March 1943, the Guyanese are rebelling against the regime and join Free France. Caribbeans followed suit and in April, May and June 1943. In Guadeloupe, a civil resistance movement took up arms and rebel against the Vichy administration, influenced by Paul Valentino (opponent to the regime, arrested on 21 April 1940 at Fort Napoleon locked Saintes and deported to prison Islander Hi (French Guiana)) clandestinely returned to the island from the Guyanese revolt. In Martinique, the marines from Fort-de-France in turn rebel against Admiral Robert.
Shortages resulting from the embargo make life more difficult. Admiral Robert wanting to put an end to the blockade, sent a letter of surrender to the Americans on 30 June 1943.
July 3, 1943, U.S. Admiral John Howard Hoover arrived in Martinique and 8 July 1943, the U.S. government requires an unconditional surrender to the authority of the French Committee of National Liberation (CFLN) and offers political asylum to Admiral Robert.
On 15 July 1943, the Governor Constant Sorin and Admiral Robert are relieved of their duties by Henri Hoppenot ambassador Free French Forces. The French West Indies and in turn join Free France. Admiral Robert left Martinique on the same day for Puerto Rico and the United States.
The mayor of Terre-de-Haut Theodore Samson finds its tasks from the release of Guadeloupe.
On 19 March 1946 the President of the Provisional Government of the French Republic promulgates the law of departmentalization erecting the colonies of Guadeloupe, Martinique, Reunion and French Guiana. Therefore, Saintes, Marie-Galante, La Désirade, Saint-Barthélemy and the French part of Saint Martin are attached to the new department of Guadeloupe as common. The colonial status known before is replaced by a policy of assimilation to the metropolitan territory.
In 1957, in the countryside Municipal, the mysterious death of the mayor of Terre-de-Haut, Theodore Samson, while he was in the offices of the National Police of the island to settle a dispute between his little son and riparian about an earthenware jar, causing an uprising of the people against the institution will sacked by shots of conch shells and stones. The revolt lasted two days before being blurred by the military and police reinforcements came from Guadeloupe will dispel the crowd, seek and stop insurgents mainly from the Pineau family, political support Theodore Samson. A frigate of the French Navy will harbor a few weeks of Saintes to restore calm.
Development of Tourism
1958: The Holy embark on the sightseeing cruise and will become one of the most popular stops in the Lesser Antilles. They welcome to France in 1963, its first transatlantic who drop anchor in the bay as many ships sail in Italian, Swedish, Norwegian and U.S. still attending the small archipelago. The era of luxury yacht commence20, 21.
In 1966, the Saints opened the aviation area and, at the initiative of Mayor Eugene Samson, the airport runway is built on the island of Terre-de-Haut.
The tourist industry was born in 1969 when the first hotel on the island opened its doors to the cove Cointre, the Bois Joli.
In 1972, Saintes endow a desalination of water by reverse osmosis, to feed the population. Distribution costs are too high, the activity is abandoned in favor of a feed subsea from Capesterre-Belle-Eau in Guadeloupe installed by IFREMER in 1993, it is the same for electricity, even if a central backup fired remained active on the island of Terre-de-Bas.
In 1974, Fort Napoleon is restored by the Club du Vieux Manoir young and active association, the Association Saintoise Heritage Protection (ASPP) and hosts the museum of the history and heritage of Saintes. He became the most visited tourist site in the archipelago. In 1984, the Botanical Gardens of Monaco and Nancy sponsoring the birth of an exotic garden on the parapet of Fort Napoleon.
As part of the "La Route of the Flowers", Terre-de-Haut is twinned with the town of Baccarat, famous for its crystal.
In 1990, the island of Terre-de-Haut is awarded the Oscar for the environment, the preservation of its heritage and its natural habitat.
May 14, 1991, sites Pompierre Bay and Sugar Loaf are classified protected areas law of 2 May 193022
In 1994, the tourism office of the Holy was born in replacement of the tourist, the island receives about 300,000 visitors a year and is a popular cruise and yachting destination.
On 20 May 1994, during his trip to the West Indies, Prime Minister Edouard Balladur, made an official visit to Terre-de-Haut.
In May 2001, Les Saintes include the Club of the most beautiful bays in the world.
Earthquake said "the Holy"
On 21 November 2004, the Saintes are hit by an earthquake of magnitude 6.3. This is an intraplate earthquake located on a normal fault system from the Holy north of Dominica. These faults are generally directed on an axis 135 ° (North-West to South-East), with dips to the north-east (fault Roseau, Marigot Fault) or South West (Blower flaws of Rodrigues, Redonda). These faults define ditches corresponding to a localized area on the volcano and the volcano Roseau Colibri. (An inactive underwater volcano) extension. The epicenter was located at 15 ° 47'N 61 ° 28'W, at sea between the island of Dominica and Les Saintes, about the vulnerability of the blower. The focal depth of the crust is superficial, and estimated about 10 000 m.
The shaking of the main shock and aftershocks are powerful, reaching an intensity of VIII MSK (heavy structural damage) to Saintes. Materials at Saintes, Trois-Rivieres (Guadeloupe) and the north of Dominica are considerable damage on the most vulnerable buildings. In Trois-Rivieres (Guadeloupe), the fall of a wall partition killed a girl asleep and seriously injured his sister. Les Saintes, even if there were no deaths or serious injuries were numbered, many were traumatized and terrorized by the many strong aftershocks. Like all the Lesser Antilles, the area around the Holy has many faults, of all sizes, which disturb each other and make last several years the decrease in magnitude and frequency of aftershocks felt easily because of the proximity of îles23 .
This earthquake has reminded the Caribbean need to live with earthquakes as with hurricanes and prepare best to minimize the risks. He also helped launch the "Earthquake Plan" at the national level, which is a section dedicated to the Caribbean.
Political and institutional developments [edit]
On 7 December 2003, Iles des Saintes, Integrated Department of Guadeloupe, participate in the referendum on the institutional development of the overseas departments and reject it by a "no" widely majoritaire24.
During the general strike of 2009 French Antilles, the islands of Les Saintes do not get involved in the movement and are moderately concerned: the supply of stores was very disturbed as elsewhere in Guadeloupe, but strikes especially on SMEs (underrepresented on these islands) and shipping companies trying to find diesel fuel to ensure the most routes, Guadeloupe tourism is partly shifted towards Saintes.
Nicolas Sarkozy said at the end of the conflict, the opening of the States General of the overseas territories. Several workshops are created including the local government, led him to design a project for institutional or statutory change in Guadeloupe and / or its latest dependencies. The foundation of the "Southern Islands" (Marie-Galante, Les Saintes and Désirade) are open in parallel. Common to these islands issues are discussed in six workshops: equal opportunities, territorial continuity, local governance, local economic development, integration through business and tourism.
On 12 May 2009, the Minister of Overseas Yves Jégo, closing this meeting, moves for an official visit to Saintes for the seminar of the southern islands. it takes into account the reality of identity and the political will of the islands, improve territorial continuity, reduce the effects of double insularity, removing the dependence on Guadeloupe, national representation, development of attractiveness of the employment base in the area of ​​the fight against depopulation, taxation and cost of living. Immediately he announced the signing of a contract called HUMMINGBIRD (Contract for Employment and Local Initiatives in the Regional Basin Islands South), a convention of public interest group planning and development (GIPAD) and a proposed statutory changes at the end, as explained the governance workshop, the group of islands south and elected on the basis of Article 74 of the constitution. Les Iles des Saintes, as Marie-Galante, aspires to create an overseas community is for each entity of the southern islands and together the three outbuildings on the same pattern as the old northern islands ( Saint-Barthélemy and Saint-Martin). Marie-Luce Penchard, Guadeloupe birth, brought the government portfolio of overseas Wed., June 23, 2009 and appointed Minister of overseas on 6 November 2009, seems adamantly opposed to the original draft of his predecessor and soon the appliquer25, 26,27,28.
Fishing has long been the main activity of the Saintes and remains predominant. Local fishermen are extremely famous in the archipelago of the Lesser Antilles for their bravery and their "sweeps."
For thirty years, the Saintes have become a major tourist destination and this activity is now the hub of the local economy. Terre-de-Haut welcomes many yachts that dock in the Bay of the Holy, "one of the most beautiful bays in the world" according to the assessment made by the club of the most beautiful bays in the monde29. The hotels and B & Bs spread, without distorting the archipelago which has remained wild. Bay attracts luxury yachts, cruise ships and tall ships crossing the Caribbean. (84 stops cruise for 2009) Terre-de-Haut receives more than 380,000 visitors who enjoy the shops of the archipelago annually.
Agriculture has never really developed on these arid lands facing the sea
An economic approach to all activities is conducted by the National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies (INSEE) of Guadeloupe. Economic activity remains relatively low, marked by strong differences between Terre-de-Haut30 and Terre-de-BAS31. The unemployment rate is 12.6% (2007). The assets consist of a majority of employees and workers and a small percentage of commercial artisans. The number of companies in the islands was in 2007 to 33,132.
The Iles des Saintes view from the "Guadeloupe".
The islands of Les Saintes extend only over 12.8 km2 but they are characterized by a large coastline, enriched those four small uninhabited islands. The coasts of the islands have no real but their rocky reefs are covered with corals. Sandy bottoms are they more or less colonized by marine seagrass Phanerogams. The inventory of natural areas of ecological interest, flora and fauna (SSSI) helped identify areas in 2008 covering 381 hectares.
The terrestrial fauna is characterized by the presence of many land iguanas. On this small territory cohabiting endemic Caribbean, Iguana delicatissima (the heraldic symbol of the city of Terre-de-Haut) and Green Iguana iguana South America, the first is threatened by the emergence iguana a hybrid resulting from reproduction between the two species. Other reptiles live with these prehistoric lizards, snakes endemic Guadeloupe (Alsophis antillensis) couresses of the Saintes (Alsophis sanctonum) and many endemic varieties of anoles. Through the hills, you can discover agoutis (Dasyprocta noblei), rodents of South America and the Caribbean Basin, the goats that inhabit the woods and near a beach and well hidden, some species of stick insect (mantis religious or horse wood).
Birds are the most recurrent Caribbean species for:
Sugar (Coereba flaveola);
Manniques (Mannik in Creole).
Waders lazing in salt ponds (Egretta thula snowy egrets, green herons and storage beef Bubulcus ibis, purple night herons Nycticorax violaceus, crab, etc..) And cohabiting with freshwater turtles, water hens (Gallinula chloropus ), land crabs (Cardisoma guanhumi), the touloulous crabs (Gecarcinus lateralis), fiddler crabs and other crab species. Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) is easily visible and audible when hiking in the dry forest, like the dove square tail (Zenaida aurita), endemic species protected this island rosary.
Nocturnal wildlife beats of his symphony. At nightfall, the balet frogs, no less significant by the rarity of species (Eleutherodactylus barlegnei, Eleutherodactylus pinchoni, Hylole Johnstone Eleutherodactylus jonhsonei) quickly disturbed by the minuet played locusts.
Bats or guimbos (Ardops nichollsi) we expect a blind eye to leave their caves or foliage to come eat papaya, plums and other fruits and berries.
Marine fauna
The archipelago is home to a wide variety of:
reef fish (parrot fish, tench, trumpets, Epinephelus guttatus and large mouths, groupers oualiouas, cardinals fish, damsels, sergeant majors, black or royal triggerfish, sun fish, safe fish, snappers (dog or yellow), groupers, moray eels, common convention, congress green, stone fish (poisonous), colas, puffers, captains, fish surgeons, etc.).
pelagic fish (kingfish pen or round or yellow head mayolles, barracuda barracuda, bream or dolphinfish Coryphaena hippurus, tuna, thazars, bull's-eye snapper, garfish, etc.).
royal spiny lobsters (Panulirus argus) and Brazilian (Panulirus guttatus);
crustaceans (crab spiders, crabs Fabricators, slipper lobsters, etc.).
molluscs (cuttlefish, squid, octopus or chatrous);
conch shells (conch known for their flesh), helmets, clams and whelks, etc.. ;
anemones, seaweed, white and black sea urchins, polyps and other varieties of cnidarians (jellyfish);
corals (brain Neptune, fire coral, etc..) characteristics of the Caribbean, which is not lack of notice from underwater dives in different spots in the archipelago.
sharks and rays;
Moreover, dry pie is particularly popular and famous among the most beautiful in the Caribbean (level 2 required). Fishing for fish and shellfish is regulated see banned for some species. Although saintoises waters are unaffected by ciguatera toxic microalgae after the destruction of coral reefs ingested fish species, it is possible that some predators are contaminated have migrated into the waters north of the 16th parallel, area where the toxin is particularly rife.
It is not uncommon to see in the channel of the Holy cétacés33, humpback whales, sperm whales, orcas, dolphins during their migration to breed in the warm waters of the Caribbean.
Seabirds, Magnificent Frigatebird (Fregata magnificens), brown or masked crazy, terns, double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus), brown pelicans "Great throats" (Pelecanus occidentalis), petrels nest easily in the quiet cliffs and uninhabited islets Saintes, especially the Grand Islet, nature reserve on the island who knows the attendance species crazy only observable at Saintes, among the islands of the department, the Red Footed booby (Sula sula), and blue-footed boobies ( Sula nebouxii) 34. But in the context of climate change and invasive alien species planted by the hand of man (eg, lion fish), the environment and biodiversity of these islands are considered very vulnerable and should be subject to draconian protection, it is recommended that visitors not to make any collection of plant, catch or poaching of animals, to avoid disturbing the species in their natural habitat or ecosystem and pollute. A coast guard is always present to ensure this heritage, acknowledge shortcomings and verbalize offenses.
Protection of sea turtles [edit]
Many species are endemic and strictly protected, identified, and monitored by the conservatory and lake shores, particularly marine turtles under the international convention ratified by France. Indeed, the Saintes are home seven varieties marines35 three turtles (those in bold) that nest on the beaches of the island:
Green turtle (Chelonia mydas);
Turtle flat back (Natator depressus);
loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta)
olive ridley turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea)
the Kemp's Ridley (Lepidochelys kempii);
hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata)
Leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea).
Local flora
The flora is, in turn, typical dry forest of volcanic islands in the Caribbean
Wood soap (sapindus saponaria)
Poirier countries (Tabebuia heterophylla)
Cherry (Eugenia axillaris) (a species of myrtle whose fruit is used the manufacture of sweet cherry liqueur, local and typical drink of the Holy) 36
Red gum (Bursera simaruba)
Frangipani (Plumeria alba)
Mancenillier (Hippomane mancinella) marked with a red line on their trunk by the conservatory poisonous tree
Surette (Zizyphus mauriciana) whose edible apples are used in the manufacture of punch by macerating in rum, *
Red or Yellow Flamboyant (Delonix regia)
Locust (locust Hymenea)
Tamarind (Tamarindus indica) whose fruits are used to make a specialty of Terre-de-Bas, "The Limbe," a small craft confectionery.
Bois d'india (Pimenta racemosa) much more present on the hills of Terre-de-Bas where the locals use it to make the "bayrum" lotion friction curative whose effectiveness has been proven to Antilles. In addition, some species of wood of India can be used in hair creams, promoting rapid regrowth and hair nutrition. The seeds are also used as a spice to flavor dishes. The use of wood india is provided by the association "The Mapu" Earth From Netherlands where it has the medicinal "Eloit Germain" garden.
The aridity has allowed the development of colonies of very diverse cacti, the most notable are:
candles cactus (Cereus)
racquets with spines or without spines or prickly pear (Opuntia ficus);
heads to English (melocactus intortus) honoring the logo of the Tourist Office.
Herbaceous littering the arid soil of the hills are composed of lianidés sometimes stinging nettles (zouti-bata or Acalypha arvensis), cat's claw (Uncaria grif a cat or tomentosa), small balms (ti bonm or Croton balsamifer) tree luck (Pye chans or philodendron) and fabaceaes tree with dots or toxic or edible seeds, peas (Cajanus cajan), gogan peas (Canavalia gladiata sword or peas), boukoussou peas, Senes (Senna alexandrina), the margoses or apple sauce (ponm coolie or Momordica charantia), yellow mechanical (Caesalpinia ciliatea) or gray (Caesalpinia bonduc) with which children play marbles, the paternoster bean seeds or the church (Abrus precatorius), the carapates or castor seeds common bean (Ricinus communis), widely used in local crafts.
Seashores know them a vegetation composed of:
Giant coconut yellow or green oranges;
Raisiniers seaside (Coccoloba uvifera);
Catalpa (Thespesia populnea);
Icaquiers (Chrysobalanus icaco);
Muricife (term creole) olive edible so almost disappeared from the Caribbean beaches.
Three rare orchid species grow naturally in the archipelago and are subject to strict protection:
the Epidendrum ciliare, the most common;
the Tolumnia urophylla (or Oncidium urophyllum), similar to the golden bee but smaller;
and rarer still, the Brassavola cucullata, endangered the Saintes.
Many marked trails were made by the conservatory through the forest, so to observe these natural resources, the historic ruins of fortifications and admire exceptional panoramas offered by the Holy visitors.
Beach sand is predominantly white or gold, although some areas remain under the black sand in places, causing colored shades of white sandy seashores, the field of ghost crabs (Ocypode quadrata) of the hermit hermit (Soudas or Coenobita), crabs and crabs ciriques Sally light-foot (or Zagaya Grapsus grapsus) on semi-submerged rocks.
Environmental and energy policy [edit]
Many actions to protect this fragile ecosystem are decided at the international, national, departmental and municipal levels. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN acronym or English IUCN) has listed several sites in the archipelago and has categorized the degree of protection according to current classification. So many sites are included in category IV defined by the non-governmental organization.
During the 1990s most of the beaches and hills of the islands are the subject arrested biotope protection (Grande Anse beach, Islet in Cabrit, Morne Morel ...). May 14, 1991 Pompierre sites and Sugar Loaf are classified law of 2 May 1930 at the request of the municipality and the general council.
The Coastal Protection and Lakeshore is in the national program for the protection of natural areas, the acquisition of more land including the Grand Islet and Morne Chameau22.
Since December 31, 2010, open dumps, long remained an environmental problem for the islands were closed and replaced by the introduction of various waste sorting and compaction before shipping on Guadeloupe in order to be retired.
Furthermore disposable plastic bags have disappeared boxes of groceries and shops of the archipelago. Both municipal authorities have urged people to change their habits by actively distributing reusable bag. These new policy measures, the Holy become more involved in environmental protection and patrimoine37, 38,39,40,41.
Terre-de-Haut develops its agenda local42 21, 43,44,45.
In May 2011, dozens of mooring buoys have been installed in the Bay of Terre-de-Haut to regulate pleasure and reduce wetting fairground which damages the seabed.
Spéciales46 of wind turbines can be braced and lying on the ground (in 45 minutes) to the announcement of a hurricane or storm were installed in the archipelago.
These turbines are very lightweight and designed to withstand earthquakes the most common. They do not require as deep as other foundations and ship spare parts. In 2007, the seven machines 275 kW unit could produce three million kWh per year, making Terre-de-Bas, in the islands of the Holy excess electricity, allowing it to provide the "Guadeloupe".
Festivities customary
The calendar of festivals and customs saintoises is guided by the Christian holidays. The traditions of the Church are very much alive. Holidays are the same as the national calendar days completed specific departments of Guadeloupe and those of the archipelago of Les Saintes.
Christian holidays are celebrated Mass in the church led by the choirs of the two parishes. (Christmas, Easter, Pentecost) Some parties have their features:
Corpus Christi or altar (sixtieth day after Easter): the faithful follow a procession through the streets of the island with the priest, who protects the Blessed Sacrament decorated with beautiful embroidery more local crafts to a cave that is called repository, which holds children dressed in Angels throwing flower petals. Residents living along the route of procession out to the entrance of their house, their nets, fishing nets decorated with fruits and flowers, Christian icons and paintings of the Last Supper.
The festival of fishing and fishermen celebrated on June 11 of each year: fishing contest, mesh net, commemorating the fishermen dead, public entertainment and dance await you.
The celebrations of August 15 and 16 holidays. The 15 is the Feast of the island of Terre-de-Haut, elected officials and pavoisent all the boats of the bay, gun salute, cheerleaders, torchlight, awakening fanfare. The famous island the French victory against the English August 15, 1666 and the patron saint of the island, Our Lady of the Assumption with which the people in procession through the streets of the island and go to the beach where the priest throws a wreath into the sea which serves to signal the start of the sailing race saintoise. A naval vessel is present for the occasion, including a frigate Fougeuse which the island of Terre-de-Haut is the godmother. Officer and sailor bachis (red bobble hat) walking in the island. Once Joan of Arc attended the festivities. The 16 is the feast day of sailors and sailor, who in procession with the ship model saintois the Starfish monument to the dead sea and the program: beauty contests, events, contests of all kinds, fireworks and podiums which begin on August 14. Today this festival is very famous and has become a festival of Caribbean music, where many artists come and go. The island of Terre-de-Bas festivities begins August 8 and August 9.
St. Nicolas: patron saint and patron saint of the island of Terre-de-Bas.
Carnival is celebrated as most of the islands in February, by lavish costumes and masks parade through the streets to the rhythms of Carnival Caribbean percussion for fat days: Saturday, Sunday, Monday (night parade in pajamas), Tuesday- fat (parade) and Ash Wednesday (parade black and white fence carnival by burning a puppet Vaval, King of Carnival). A traditional mask saintois frightens children especially during Mardi Gras is called Mo-living (undead).
The craftsmanship is still present at the Saintes, still producing typical objects:
the traditional hat, salako, made of vegetable fiber from bamboo, the sharp and probably originated in Indochina end, covered with white cloth top and blue bottom for its traditional color, but also dressed in madras fabric; Its manufacture is made by artisans on the island of Terre-de-Bas.
the saintoise a fishing boat that has spread throughout the Lesser Antilles for its reliability and maneuverability. It is the work of the old shipwrights on the island who modernized the same powering. Its traditional form is sailing and wood and is used in racing in the bay. Guadeloupe has taken this saintoise tradition and has given live local boating creating an annual regatta which takes place in July, the TGVT (Tour de la Guadeloupe in Traditional Sailing). The saintoise is made in projects that receive orders from the Caribbean islands (Alain site Foy, Pineau site, etc.).
Embroidery, sewing, crocheting, and weaving: Venus Breton and Norman traditions, the ladies of the island willingly engaged in the manufacture of baskets with latanier leaves and sewing. Similarly qu'ombrelles, slippers, baby clothes, curtains, placemats, mantillas, bedding and embroidered pillowcases or hooks emerge from the extraordinary fingering saintoises. Their confections are sometimes exhibited in the halls for local competitions and sold before the doors of their homes. Men confectionnent them, nets, crazy (type of large mesh net), traps, fishing and weave bamboo fibers for funds and berceuses47 chair.
furniture, models and toys of wood furniture away beds, dressers, consoles, lullabies, and ship models are created by hand very skilled carpenters. Puppets, cars (Kabwa Creole) and traditional wooden tops are manufactured on the island, and are still very popular with children saintois.
Habitat: The Saints are known for the charm and cleanliness of their homes. They are the work of a traditional Creole expertise. Everything is meticulously detailed, balustrades, swing doors, blinds, patterns, and ornamental friezes covering the gutters along the roof. The wood is still the main material.
The Holy inspired many artists through their exceptional landscapes, their heritage and their stages of life.
Pascal Foy art gallery: the young saintois realized and patented his idea of ​​miniaturization and design facades of traditional Creole houses saintoises. Personal talent he exhibits and sells his art gallery at his home in Terre-de-Haut49.
Gallery Martine Cotten: the Breton artist has found asylum in Saintes for over twenty years, she creates paintings pastels on vellum scenes and views of Saintes and Brittany (Pont-Aven) it sells and exhibited in his shop in the harbor of Terre-de-Haut. His accomplishments are prized by collectors and entrepreneurs. Many exhibitions are devoted to France and étranger50.
Gallery Spindler: this artist, noted for his original creations colorful life of the Caribbean, has long stayed in Saintes, settling recently on the island of Saint-Barthélemy, his works are present in the two islands.
Cathy Regnier: watercolor painter who painted portraits and landscapes of the Holy.
Edward récup'art: love this artist exhibits paintings and holy wood panels which are intertwined recovery wood boat hulls used nets are assembled pleasure.
The soap of the island and a perfumer who makes soap, bath salts, soaps, essential oils and milks patterns and scents of the island.
Alain Foy: this young artist creates works saintois carved resin plans paintings in three dimensions.
Juliette Dabriou: painter who spent many pictorial works at the Saintes, his native island and Caribbean scenes of life. She died in 2002.
Music as all Caribbean islands, leads the daily Saintois. Musicians who once invested in public places to play saintoises complaints, Caribbean and French their accordions, violins and harmonicas have given way to some small orchestras and festivals that punctuate the saintois carnival. (SOS Band, Unison, Melody Vice, Explosion, etc). Musical genres are strongly influenced by the rhythms of the surrounding islands, including Cadence Lypso dominicaise remains the most popular kind and listened to Les Saintes. (Grammacks band of dominica, Liquid ice, one Exile, Black affairs, etc..).
Traditional Music (quadrille command biguine Mazouk dive Martinique) is still present for folk dances and official visits where people stand their traditional costumes and sing the songs of the island live péyi new year, long live the Holy new year (visiting minister or common feast day of the archipelago). The Gwoka, unlike its neighbor Guadeloupe where it originates has only timid appearances at Saintes, but not integrated saintoises traditions.
The Haitian kompa and combos (groups) Guadeloupe 70s (The Eaglets, the Perfecta, etc..) Are very popular and are played at festivals in everyday life (weddings, baptisms, public dance, etc..).
Creole waltz remained the traditional emblem of the opening of the ball by the newlyweds in the archipelago.
Zouk, salsa, merengue, dance hall and French and international varieties are popular with young people who dance to these rhythms in bars and nightclubs outdoor Saintes. The Saints have also inspired the singer Guadeloupe Francky Vincent who dedicated a title Saintes: The torment of love.
A singer saintois "Merry Coconut" to whom we owe the title's cousin and Piña colada cocoloco passed to posterity the French Antilles as an illustrious group of Terre-de-Bas The Star of the Seas to whom we owe The titles vi sin (The year mè the rabid) pwoblem Ti and marine fisheries.
People of the sea, the food consists mainly of seafood and Creole Caribbean culinary palettes (Short fish broth, Colombo, Boudin Creole cod fritters ...) to which are added some typical specialties :
The torment of love: A little tart consists of a pastry, jam (the coconut to the original) and covered with a sponge. This cupcake is very common in the archipelago where the market crowd upon arrival at the jetty for sale to visitors. Each year the festival a competition of the good and big love torment is organized in folklore and tradition of the country. We find now based jam other tropical fruit, banana, guava, passion fruit, pineapple. Francky Vincent praised it in one of his musical compositions, a few years ago.
Pancakes fish: To honor their ancestral roots, saintois have created a pancake to the distinction of being filled with a stuffing fish and bechamel. It is golden in the oven and covered with breadcrumbs. The market of sausages do not forget to make this dish with a fragrant scent market.
The fish cake: Resembling a block Gascon terrine, it is a fish terrine range oven and served fresh.
Limbo: A form of sweets made up on the island of Terre-de-Bas-based tamarind, sugar and condensed milk (cr: lèt kondansé). A very common fruit in the archipelago.
The fwisu: This is a special preparation of blood cabrit, served as a starter. It is much closer to the Sanquette regions of southern France.
The wog: Name that carries the eggs of fish, that saintois prepare fried. a kind of local caviar.
Sweet cherry liqueur: Small wild berries saintois wood soaked in rum to give a liqueur. Paid to aging, it releases more flavor. It is considered as the local wine by its color and taste.
Heritage and Historical Monuments
The museum and botanical garden of Fort Napoleon
Nature reserves of the Grand Islet and dreary Morel
The ruins of the Lazaretto and Fort Josephine islet in Cabrit
The Carolina batteries (dull Morel) and Model (Morne Camel)
The marine cemetery of Terre-de-Haut
The lighthouse of Port des Saintes (Terre-de-Haut)
"Ship islands" or house boat before (Terre-de-Haut)
Calvary Chapel (Terre-de-Haut)
Place Governor Lion or place débarcardère (Terre-de-Haut)
Organs basalt Sugar Loaf (Terre-de-Haut)
The Church of Our Lady of the Assumption (Terre-de-Haut)
The ruins of the Pottery of Grand Bay (Terre-de-Bas)
The church of Saint-Nicolas (Terre-de-Bas)
The lookout and ponds dreary Abymes (Earth-to-low)
The picturesque area of ​​Mapu and Bay Rum factory and gasoline Wood India (Earth Netherlands)
The site plunged dry Pie (Terre-de-Bas)
Multiple tracks (Crawen, Pompierre, Rodrigue, Fig Tree, Marigot, Anse Mire, Grande-Anse, Anse à Dos, Anse Cointre ...) of the archipelago and cliffs (blowers, large cap ...)
The Hiking (Trace Crètes, dreary Abymes, Camel ...)
The island hosts a dispensary Island Terre-de-Haut has two GPs, two dentists, four physiotherapists. Terre-de-Bas welcomes a GP. The pharmacy is located on the island of Terre-de-Haut.
Each island has a rescue center the SDIS, firefighters are equipped with appropriate equipment and vehicles to fight against disasters and assist the wounded, suffocated and drowned.
Note the presence of a defibrillator for cardiac events in the archipelago.
Care and other specialties are taught in Basse-Terre and Pointe-à-Pitre and emergency firefighters seeking helicopter civil security.
Travel to the islands
Transport in the municipality of Terre-de-Haut occurs mainly scooters and motorcycles, to cycling and walking, the distance is small but locally steep slopes. Many renters scooters offer their services to tourists upon arrival. The cars are rare, a few taxis, minibuses passenger and commercial flows through the narrow streets of the island. At Terre-de-Bas minibuses provide the bulk transport (island and tourists) between the landing and the two towns.
For regular passenger, small ferries (high-speed vessels for some) provide several daily connections 7d / 7 between Terre-de-Bas, Terre-de-Haut, Trois-Rivieres and Basse-Terre some mornings. A regional subsidy reduces travel costs incurred by the islanders.
Other bonds, mainly tourism, there a several times a week from Pointe-à-Pitre, Grand-Bourg (Marie Galante), Roseau (Dominica) or Fort-de-France (Martinique).
The Saintes archipelago is very popular with pleasure boats, from Guadeloupe or Caribbean cruise and recreational activities and water sports are available on site.
Freight transport is mostly done by a cabotage almost daily small multipurpose cargo (from 100 to 200 dwt) or barges with Guadeloupe for medium to large volumes, small deliveries or express service being provided by the passenger shuttles.
Air transport
An airfield across the island of Terre-de-Haut, but his track 580m reserve the small aircraft and small sea distance does not maintain a profitable regular line (linking Caribbean Air ceased in 2008) . In addition, it is vulnerable to silting when cyclonic swell. It is ideally suited for private flights (chartering or recreational aviation).
Written by : stephan mastail